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Fast and memory-efficient streaming hash functions. Performs direct hashing of strings, raw bytes, and files potentially larger than memory, as well as hashing in-memory objects through R’s serialization mechanism, without requiring allocation of the serialized object.

Implementations include the SHA-256, SHA-3 and Keccak cryptographic hash functions, SHAKE256 extendable-output function (XOF), and ‘SipHash’ pseudo-random function.

The SHA-3 Secure Hash Standard was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2015 at doi:10.6028/NIST.FIPS.202. SHA-3 is based on the Keccak algorithm, designed by G. Bertoni, J. Daemen, M. Peeters and G. Van Assche. The SHA-256 Secure Hash Standard was published by NIST in 2002 at The SipHash family of pseudo-random functions by Jean-Philippe Aumasson and Daniel J. Bernstein was published in 2012 at[1]

The SHA-256, SHA-3 and Keccak implementations are based on those by the ‘Mbed TLS’ Trusted Firmware Project at The SipHash implementation is based on that of Daniele Nicolodi, David Rheinsberg and Tom Gundersen at, which is in turn based on the reference implementation by Jean-Philippe Aumasson and Daniel J. Bernstein released to the public domain at


Install the latest release from CRAN:


Or the development version from R-universe:

install.packages("secretbase", repos = "")

Quick Start



sha3("secret base")
#> [1] "a721d57570e7ce366adee2fccbe9770723c6e3622549c31c7cab9dbb4a795520"

sha3("secret base", convert = FALSE)
#>  [1] a7 21 d5 75 70 e7 ce 36 6a de e2 fc cb e9 77 07 23 c6 e3 62 25 49 c3 1c 7c
#> [26] ab 9d bb 4a 79 55 20

sha3("秘密の基地の中", bits = 512)
#> [1] "e30cdc73f6575c40d55b5edc8eb4f97940f5ca491640b41612e02a05f3e59dd9c6c33f601d8d7a8e2ca0504b8c22f7bc69fa8f10d7c01aab392781ff4ae1e610"

Hash arbitrary R objects

sha3(data.frame(a = 1, b = 2), bits = 224)
#> [1] "03778aad53bff7dd68caab94374bba6f07cea235fb97b3c52cf612e9"

#> [1] "b3e37e4c5def1bfb2841b79ef8503b83d1fed46836b5b913d7c16de92966dcee"

Hash files

file <- tempfile(); cat("secret base", file = file)
sha3(file = file)
#> [1] "a721d57570e7ce366adee2fccbe9770723c6e3622549c31c7cab9dbb4a795520"

Hash to integer / SHAKE256 XOF

shake256("秘密の基地の中", bits = 32, convert = NA)
#> [1] 2000208511

For use in parallel computing, this is a valid method for reducing to a negligible probability that RNGs in each process may overlap. This may be especially suitable when first-best alternatives such as using recursive streams are too expensive or unable to preserve reproducibility. [2]


keccak("secret base", bits = 384)
#> [1] "c82bae24175676028e44aa08b9e2424311847adb0b071c68c7ea47edf049b0e935ddd2fc7c499333bccc08c7eb7b1203"


sha256("secret base")
#> [1] "1951c1ca3d50e95e6ede2b1c26fefd0f0e8eba1e51a837f8ccefb583a2b686fe"
sha256("secret base", key = "秘密の基地の中")
#> [1] "ec58099ab21325e792bef8f1aafc0a70e1a7227463cfc410931112705d753392"


siphash13("secret base", key = charToRaw("秘密の基地の中"))
#> [1] "a1f0a751892cc7dd"


[1] Jean-Philippe Aumasson and Daniel J. Bernstein (2012), “SipHash: a fast short-input PRF”, Paper 2012/351, Cryptology ePrint Archive,

[2] Pierre L’Ecuyer, David Munger, Boris Oreshkin and Richard Simard (2017), “Random numbers for parallel computers: Requirements and methods, with emphasis on GPUs”, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 135, May 2017, pp. 3-17 doi:10.1016/j.matcom.2016.05.00.


◈ secretbase R package:

Mbed TLS website:
SipHash streaming implementation:
SipHash reference implementation:

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