R build status Codecov test coverage DOI CRAN status

ggnewscale tries to make it painless to use multiple scales in ggplot2. Although originally intended to use with colour and fill, it should work with any aes, such as shape, linetype and the rest.

ggnewscale: spend 400% more time tweaking your ggplot!

For another way of defining multiple scales, you can also try relayer.

How to install

You can install ggnewscale from CRAN with:


Or the development version with:

# install.packages("devtools")

How to cite

If you use ggnewscale in a publication, I’ll be grateful if you cited it. To get the suggested citation for this (and any other R package) you can use:

#> To cite ggnewscale in publications use:
#>   Campitelli E (????). _ggnewscale: Multiple Fill and Colour Scales in
#>   'ggplot2'_. doi:10.5281/zenodo.2543762
#>   <>, R package version 0.4.10.
#> A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is
#>   @Manual{R-ggnewscale,
#>     title = {ggnewscale: Multiple Fill and Colour Scales in 'ggplot2'},
#>     author = {Elio Campitelli},
#>     note = {R package version 0.4.10},
#>     doi = {10.5281/zenodo.2543762},
#>   }

If you use knitr, you can automate this with

knitr::write_bib(c("ggnewscale"), "packages.bib")

And then add citations with @R-ggnewscale.

Click to see a list of some publications that have cited ggnewscale. Thanks!

[1] E. Akhil Prakash, T. Hromádková, T. Jabir, et al. “Dissemination of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria to the Polar Environment - Role of the Longest Migratory Bird Arctic Tern (Sterna Paradisaea)”. In: Science of The Total Environment (Dec. 31, 2021), p. 152727. ISSN: 0048-9697. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152727. (visited on 01/03/2022).

[2] R. AminiTabrizi, R. M. Wilson, J. D. Fudyma, et al. “Controls on Soil Organic Matter Degradation and Subsequent Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Permafrost Thaw Gradient in Northern Sweden”. In: Frontiers in Earth Science 8 (2020). ISSN: 2296-6463. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2020.557961. (visited on 03/03/2021).

[3] D. Baker, J. Lauer, A. Ortega, et al. “Effects of Phycosphere Bacteria on Their Algal Host Are Host Species-Specific and Not Phylogenetically Conserved”. In: Microorganisms 11.1 (1 Jan. 2023), p. 62. ISSN: 2076-2607. DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms11010062. (visited on 12/28/2022).

[4] L. Baumgarten, B. Pieper, B. Song, et al. “Pan-European Study of Genotypes and Phenotypes in the Arabidopsis Relative Cardamine Hirsuta Reveals How Adaptation, Demography, and Development Shape Diversity Patterns”. In: PLOS Biology 21.7 (Jul. 18, 2023), p. e3002191. ISSN: 1545-7885. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3002191. (visited on 07/24/2023).

[5] J. Botero, A. S. Sombolestani, M. Cnockaert, et al. “A Phylogenomic and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Commensalibacter, a Versatile Insect Symbiont”. In: Animal Microbiome 5.1 (Apr. 29, 2023), p. 25. ISSN: 2524-4671. DOI: 10.1186/s42523-023-00248-6. (visited on 05/02/2023).

[6] I. N. Boys, A. G. Johnson, M. R. Quinlan, et al. “Structural Homology Screens Reveal Host-Derived Poxvirus Protein Families Impacting Inflammasome Activity”. In: Cell Reports 42.8 (Aug. 29, 2023), p. 112878. ISSN: 2211-1247. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112878. (visited on 07/30/2023).

[7] I. N. Boys, A. G. Johnson, M. Quinlan, et al. Structural Homology Screens Reveal Poxvirus-Encoded Proteins Impacting Inflammasome-Mediated Defenses. Feb. 27, 2023. (visited on 03/02/2023). preprint.

[8] N. H. Buitendijk and B. A. Nolet. “Timing and Intensity of Goose Grazing: Implications for Grass Height and First Harvest”. In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 357 (Nov. 01, 2023), p. 108681. ISSN: 0167-8809. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2023.108681. (visited on 07/25/2023).

[9] M. E. Carey, Z. A. Dyson, D. J. Ingle, et al. “Global Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Typhoid Fever Pathogens: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of 13,000 Salmonella Typhi Genomes”. In: eLife 12 ( Sep. 12, 2023). Ed. by M. J. Bonten, J. W. van der Meer, M. J. Bonten and L. A. Cowley, p. e85867. ISSN: 2050-084X. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.85867. (visited on 09/19/2023).

[10] H. Chen, G. Chew, N. Devapragash, et al. “The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase WWP2 Regulates Pro-Fibrogenic Monocyte Infiltration and Activity in Heart Fibrosis”. In: Nature Communications 13.1 (1 Nov. 30, 2022), p. 7375. ISSN: 2041-1723. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-34971-6. (visited on 12/03/2022).

[11] T. Chen, Y. Lei, M. Li, et al. “Network Pharmacology to Unveil the Mechanism of Suanzaoren Decoction in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s with Diabetes”. In: Hereditas 161.1 (Jan. 03, 2024), p. 2. ISSN: 1601-5223. DOI: 10.1186/s41065-023-00301-z. pmid: 38167125.

[12] H. Danlin, T. Chao, S. Zhenjie, et al. “Potential Synergistic Regulation of Hsp70 and Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Pyropia Yezoensis under High Temperature Stress”. In: Algal Research (Jan. 10, 2024), p. 103375. ISSN: 2211-9264. DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2023.103375. (visited on 01/16/2024).

[13] X. Ding, K. Liu, Q. Yan, et al. “Sugar and Organic Acid Availability Modulate Soil Diazotroph Community Assembly and Species Co-Occurrence Patterns on the Tibetan Plateau”. In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (Oct. 18, 2021). ISSN: 1432-0614. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11629-9. (visited on 10/21/2021).

[14] T. G. Drivas, A. Lucas, and M. D. Ritchie. “eQTpLot: A User-Friendly R Package for the Visualization of Colocalization between eQTL and GWAS Signals”. In: BioData Mining 14.1 (Jul. 17, 2021), p. 32. ISSN: 1756-0381. DOI: 10.1186/s13040-021-00267-6. (visited on 07/21/2021).

[15] K. Giannakis, S. J. Arrowsmith, L. Richards, et al. “Evolutionary Inference across Eukaryotes Identifies Universal Features Shaping Organelle Gene Retention”. In: Cell Systems (Sep. 16, 2022). ISSN: 2405-4712. DOI: 10.1016/j.cels.2022.08.007. (visited on 09/19/2022).

[16] R. B. Gorodnichev, M. A. Kornienko, M. V. Malakhova, et al. “Isolation and Characterization of the First Zobellviridae Family Bacteriophage Infecting Klebsiella Pneumoniae”. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24.4 (4 Jan. 2023), p. 4038. ISSN: 1422-0067. DOI: 10.3390/ijms24044038. (visited on 02/20/2023).

[17] M. C. Granovetter, L. Ettensohn, and M. Behrmann. “With Childhood Hemispherectomy, One Hemisphere Can Support—But Is Suboptimal for—Word and Face Recognition”. In: bioRxiv (Nov. 08, 2020), p. 2020.11.06.371823. DOI: 10.1101/2020.11.06.371823. (visited on 03/03/2021).

[18] C. Higgs, L. S. Kumar, K. Stevens, et al. “Comparison of Contemporary Invasive and Non-Invasive Streptococcus Pneumoniae Isolates Reveals New Insights into Circulating Anti-Microbial Resistance Determinants”. In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 0.0 (Oct. 12, 2023), pp. e00785-23. DOI: 10.1128/aac.00785-23. (visited on 10/23/2023).

[19] C. Higgs, L. S. Kumar, K. Stevens, et al. “Population Structure, Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Victoria, Australia”. In: Microbial Genomics 9.7 (2023), p. 001070. ISSN: 2057-5858. DOI: 10.1099/mgen.0.001070. (visited on 07/25/2023).

[20] A. T. Hinsu, K. J. Panchal, R. J. Pandit, et al. “Characterizing Rhizosphere Microbiota of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) from Pre-Sowing to Post-Harvest of Crop under Field Conditions”. In: Scientific Reports 11.1 (1 Aug. 31, 2021), p. 17457. ISSN: 2045-2322. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-97071-3. (visited on 09/06/2021).

[21] T. Hinzke, F. Tanneberger, C. Aggenbach, et al. “Response Patterns of Fen Sedges to a Nutrient Gradient Indicate Both Geographic Origin-Specific Genotypic Differences and Phenotypic Plasticity”. In: Wetlands 42.8 (Nov. 17, 2022), p. 113. ISSN: 1943-6246. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-022-01629-4. (visited on 11/24/2022).

[22] M. Jenckel, I. Smith, T. King, et al. “Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild and Domestic Rabbits in Australia”. In: Pathogens 10.12 (12 Dec. 2021), p. 1637. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10121637. (visited on 12/21/2021).

[23] H. Jentsch and J. Weidinger. “Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Valley Wind Systems in the Complex Mountain Topography of the Rolwaling Himal, Nepal”. In: Atmosphere 13.7 (7 Jul. 2022), p. 1138. ISSN: 2073-4433. DOI: 10.3390/atmos13071138. (visited on 08/01/2022).

[24] B. Jiang, D. M. Weinstock, K. A. Donovan, et al. “ITK Degradation to Block T Cell Receptor Signaling and Overcome Therapeutic Resistance in T Cell Lymphomas”. In: Cell Chemical Biology 30.4 (Apr. 20, 2023), pp. 383-393.e6. ISSN: 2451-9456, 2451-9448. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2023.03.007. pmid: 37015223. (visited on 05/09/2023).

[25] X. Jin, F. B. Yu, J. Yan, et al. “Culturing of a Complex Gut Microbial Community in Mucin-Hydrogel Carriers Reveals Strain- and Gene-Associated Spatial Organization”. In: Nature Communications 14.1 (1 Jun. 14, 2023), p. 3510. ISSN: 2041-1723. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-39121-0. (visited on 06/17/2023).

[26] P. M. Joubert and K. V. Krasileva. Distinct Genomic Contexts Predict Gene Presence-Absence Variation in Different Pathotypes of a Fungal Plant Pathogen. Feb. 17, 2023. (visited on 02/20/2023). preprint.

[27] M. Jung, D. Wells, J. Rusch, et al. “Unified Single-Cell Analysis of Testis Gene Regulation and Pathology in Five Mouse Strains”. In: eLife 8 (Jun. 25, 2019). Ed. by D. Bourc’his, P. J. Wittkopp and S. Lukassen, p. e43966. ISSN: 2050-084X. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.43966. (visited on 03/03/2021).

[28] T. Karasaki, D. A. Moore, S. Veeriah, et al. “Evolutionary Characterization of Lung Adenocarcinoma Morphology in TRACERx”. In: Nature Medicine (Apr. 12, 2023), pp. 1-13. ISSN: 1546-170X. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-023-02230-w. (visited on 04/14/2023).

[29] N. Khan, H. T. T. Nguyen, S. Galelli, et al. “Increasing Drought Risks Over the Past Four Centuries Amidst Projected Flood Intensification in the Kabul River Basin (Afghanistan and Pakistan)—Evidence From Tree Rings”. In: Geophysical Research Letters 49.24 (2022), p. e2022GL100703. ISSN: 1944-8007. DOI: 10.1029/2022GL100703. (visited on 05/09/2023).

[30] M. Kornienko, D. Bespiatykh, M. Malakhova, et al. “PCR Assay for Rapid Taxonomic Differentiation of Virulent Staphylococcus Aureus and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophages”. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24.5 (5 Jan. 2023), p. 4483. ISSN: 1422-0067. DOI: 10.3390/ijms24054483. (visited on 03/02/2023).

[31] S. Kudrenko, J. Vollering, A. Zedrosser, et al. “Walking on the Dark Side: Anthropogenic Factors Limit Suitable Habitat for Gray Wolf (Canis Lupus) in a Large Natural Area Covering Belarus and Ukraine”. In: Global Ecology and Conservation (Jul. 24, 2023), p. e02586. ISSN: 2351-9894. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2023.e02586. (visited on 07/27/2023).

[32] A. Lan, K. Kang, S. Tang, et al. “Fine-Scale Population Structure and Demographic History of Han Chinese Inferred from Haplotype Network of 111,000 Genomes”. In: bioRxiv (Jul. 04, 2020), p. 2020.07.03.166413. DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.03.166413. (visited on 03/03/2021).

[33] Z. Lapp, R. Crawford, A. Miles-Jay, et al. “Regional Spread of blaNDM-1-containing Klebsiella Pneumoniae ST147 in Post-Acute Care Facilities”. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases (ciab457 May. 17, 2021). ISSN: 1058-4838. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab457. (visited on 05/21/2021).

[34] L. S. H. Lee and C. Y. Jim. “Thermal and Humidification Effects of a Swimming Pool in Hong Kong’s Humid-Subtropical Summer”. In: Sustainable Cities and Society (Jul. 22, 2023), p. 104816. ISSN: 2210-6707. DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2023.104816. (visited on 07/25/2023).

[35] Z. Liang, T. Liu, Q. Li, et al. “Deciphering the Functional Landscape of Phosphosites with Deep Neural Network”. In: Cell Reports 42.9 (Sep. 26, 2023). ISSN: 2211-1247. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.113048. pmid: 37659078. (visited on 09/19/2023).

[36] X. Lin, Z. Sha, J. Trimpert, et al. “The NSP4 T492I Mutation Increases SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity by Altering Non-Structural Protein Cleavage”. In: Cell Host & Microbe (Jul. 03, 2023). ISSN: 1931-3128. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2023.06.002. (visited on 07/06/2023).

[37] J. Ma, X. Zhu, R. Hu, et al. “A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of the Global Prevalence of Foodborne Vibrio Spp. Infection in Fishes: A Persistent Public Health Concern”. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 187 (Feb. 01, 2023), p. 114521. ISSN: 0025-326X. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.114521. (visited on 01/10/2023).

[38] D. G. Maghini, M. Dvorak, A. Dahlen, et al. “Quantifying Bias Introduced by Sample Collection in Relative and Absolute Microbiome Measurements”. In: Nature Biotechnology (Apr. 27, 2023), pp. 1-11. ISSN: 1546-1696. DOI: 10.1038/s41587-023-01754-3. (visited on 05/02/2023).

[39] E. Merino Tejero, D. Lashgari, R. García-Valiente, et al. “Multiscale Modeling of Germinal Center Recapitulates the Temporal Transition From Memory B Cells to Plasma Cells Differentiation as Regulated by Antigen Affinity-Based Tfh Cell Help”. In: Frontiers in Immunology 11 (Feb. 05, 2021). ISSN: 1664-3224. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.620716. pmid: 33613551. (visited on 03/03/2021).

[40] I. Mokrousov, A. Vyazovaya, E. Shitikov, et al. “Insight into Pathogenomics and Phylogeography of Hypervirulent and Highly-Lethal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strain Cluster”. In: BMC Infectious Diseases 23.1 (Jun. 23, 2023), p. 426. ISSN: 1471-2334. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-023-08413-7. (visited on 06/28/2023).

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The main function is new_scale() and its aliases new_scale_color() and new_scale_fill(). When added to a plot, every geom added after them will use a different scale.

As an example, let’s overlay some measurements over a contour map of topography using the beloved volcano.

# Equivalent to melt(volcano)
topography <- expand.grid(x = 1:nrow(volcano),
                          y = 1:ncol(volcano))
topography$z <- c(volcano)

# point measurements of something at a few locations
measurements <- data.frame(x = runif(30, 1, 80),
                           y = runif(30, 1, 60),
                           thing = rnorm(30))

ggplot(mapping = aes(x, y)) +
  geom_contour(data = topography, aes(z = z, color = stat(level))) +
  # Color scale for topography
  scale_color_viridis_c(option = "D") +
  # geoms below will use another color scale
  new_scale_color() +
  geom_point(data = measurements, size = 3, aes(color = thing)) +
  # Color scale applied to geoms added after new_scale_color()
  scale_color_viridis_c(option = "A")
#> Warning: `stat(level)` was deprecated in ggplot2 3.4.0.
#> ℹ Please use `after_stat(level)` instead.
#> This warning is displayed once every 8 hours.
#> Call `lifecycle::last_lifecycle_warnings()` to see where this warning was
#> generated.

If you want to create new scales for other aes, you can call new_scale with the name of the aes. For example, use


to add multiple linetype scales.